(第 4 期)   第二卷第二期   2008 年 6 月 1 日出刊

從存有論詮釋學循環到解釋人類學-真理與方法與格爾茲理論運思之緣起

Gadamer's Hermeneutical Circle of Ontology and the Genesis of Interpretive Anthropology: The Thinking-Way of Truth and Method and It's Effective-History on Geertz's Beginning of Philosophizing

本文關鍵字:細密底描述詮釋學循環理解民族誌哲學詮釋學解釋人類學真理歷史性系統內性文本內性Hermeneutical CircleThick DescriptionUnderstandingPhilosophical Hermeneut

本文摘要

詮釋學哲思對格爾茲解釋人類學性的理論運思生成發展之影響誠無庸置疑。然而,詮釋學哲思本身亦有其生成發展,亦即,其在真理與方法(Wahrheit und Methode)一書之哲思啟始及其前史之浪漫主義方法論詮釋學之詮釋學循環,其哲思之「存有學轉向」以及其「轉向」後時期。問題在於,在文化的解釋(The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays)一書之解釋人類學生成中,到底詮釋學哲思發展之那一部份具關鍵性的效應?在此問題視域下所呈顯的課題脈絡乃在於,格爾茲解釋人類學性理論運思生成與詮釋學哲思本身發展的互相關聯與差異。而在此主題意識下,本文主在探討詮釋學哲思之基本思路與此思路本身所蘊含轉向之傾向對格爾茲解釋人類學理論運思生成之影響,以及後者對哲學詮釋學中「詮釋學循環」(hermeneutical circle)之解釋人類學性的轉化與批判性的攝納,以及此與論爭之傾向底關聯。基此題旨,本文首先依高達美哲思基源問題-理解問題-來綜觀真理與方法之基本構思,亦即理解者之為在世存有底基本構思以及其基此所發展的方法,哲學詮釋學之為思路。其次,將依「詮釋學循環」之思路綜觀此著作,如是將發現關於理解者理解活動之析解中的兩條進路以及其間之張力,以及理解者作為在世存有之詮釋學性的現象學析解與理解者之為具體性的主體之詮釋學循環式析解,盼得以揭示高達美為何只略略提到此哲學詮釋學性理解活動之過程而中途邁向「柏拉圖辯證法」與詮釋學論爭之線索。然後本文將由以上對高達美真理與方法之整體思路理解及其對格爾茲哲思之啟發以及格爾茲對其之轉化,亦即在基源問題上由存有問題至真理問題,在思想透觀上由民族誌學者之為生活於其所觀察對象之生活世界及其傳統、宗教經典傳承物至效應歷史意識及其歷史性,以及在其人類學理論運思進路上由認知人類學至解釋人類學。最後在本文整體脈絡中綜理出兩者理論運思發展過程中之動態同異處。

There is little doubt about the influence of Hermeneutics' thinking on the genesis of Geertz's interpretive anthropology philosophizing. But Hermeneutics' philosophizing itself has its own genesis and development, i.e. its beginning, the "hermeneutical circle" in Truth and Method from the prehistory of romantic hermeneutics, its "ontological turn". The problem is, which part of the development of hermeneutics' thinking has its key effect on the genesis of interpretive anthropology in The Interpretation of Cultures? The thematic context in the horizon of this question is: how is the genesis of Geertz's interpretive anthropology philosophizing and the development of Gadamer's thinking relate to each other and differentiate from each other. Under this thematic conciousness, this essay attempts to search into the basic argument of Truth and Method and the implied tendency of the "ontological turn" in such line of thought, and consequently to search Geertz's interpretive anthropology transformation and critical adoption of hermeneutical circle and its relation with the tendency of the "ontological turn". Therefore, this essay firstly tries to review, according to the question of understanding as the original question of Gadamer's thought, the basic conception of Truth and Method, i.e. of a person who is trying to understand as being-in-the-world, the method for it, and the philosophical hermeneutics as the line of thought. Based on this first point, this essay would secondly examine this work and outline the two approaches and their tension in the analysis of a person who is trying to understand, that is, the hermeneutic-phenomenological analysis of a person who is trying to understand as being-in-the-world, and the hermeneutical circle analysis of a person who is trying to understand as concrete subjectivity, in order to find out: why Gadamer only mentioned about the philosophical hermeneutics' understanding process and went halfway to the "Platonic dialectic"? Thirdly, this essay also provides understanding to the inspiration of the holistic thinking-way of Truth and Method on Geertz's philosophizing and to Geertz's own transformation of it, i.e. concerning the original question of understanding to question of truth, with regards to the perspective of thinking, from a person who is trying to understand as being-in-the-world and its tradition and religional classics to effective-history consciousness and its historicality, and regard to the line of thought from cognitive anthropology to interpretive anthropology. Finally from the whole thematic context of this essay, the present paper seeks to outline the dynamic differentiation of Geertz's philosophizing from hermeneutics' thinking in this period of their philosophical development and under this aspect the original elements of Geertz's interpretive anthropology.

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